Internet Connection Sharing on Windows XP

Today i will let u know about sharing your internet connection over windows xp. This trick shows you how to share your internet connections on multiple computers within a workgroup with Windows XP. Windows XP has a built-in feature that some of you may be knowing it is called “Internet Connection Sharing” (ICS) that allows home users to share their internet connections on multiple computers.
If you are not familiar with the network configurations, the easiest way to share your internet connection is to purchase a router or hub. Use this trick only if you don’t have a router, or don’t want to use a router, or if you just want to try out the feature.
A simple way to understand this feature is, you are making your host computer (the computer directly connects to the internet) functioning as a router for other computers.


What do you need?
  • A “Host” computer that running Windows XP. This computer must have at least TWO (2) network adapters. One adapter – let’s call it “port 1” – connects to the internet and another, “port 2“, connects to a hub or directly to other computers.
  • Client computer(s), which run any version of Windows. A client computer can be connected to the host computer directly by a cross-over cable or indirectly through a hub.
  • This trick assumes that the host computer is connected to the internet and you are able to access the internet on this computer.


Configure the Host Computer
  1. Logon the host computer as Administrator.
  2. Click Start >> Control Panel.
  3. Click Network and Internet Connections.
  4. Click Network Connections.
  5. Right-click the connection that you use to connect to the internet (the connection with port 1). This connection can be either a high-speed internet connection or a dial-up connection.
  6. Click Properties.
  7. Click Advanced tab.
  8. Under Internet Connection Sharing, select the Allow other network users to connect through this computer’s Internet connection check box.
  9. If you are sharing a dial-up Internet connection, select the Establish a dial-up connection whenever a computer on my network attempts to access the Internet check box if you want to permit your computer to automatically connect to the Internet.
  10. Click OK. You’ll reieve the following message:
    When Internet Connection Sharing is enabled, your LAN adapter will be set to use IP address 192.168.0.1. Your computer may lose connectivity with other computers on your network. If these other computers have static IP addresses, it is a good idea to set them to obtain their IP addresses automatically. Are you sure you want to enable Internet Connection Sharing?
  11. Click Yes.
Configure the Client Computer(s)
To use the shared connection from the Host computer, a client computer must be configured with “Automatic IP address”. The main configurations are:
  1. Configure TCP/IP Automatic IP
  2. Configure Internet Connection

The steps for the above two configurations are vary on different versions of Windows.
The following procedures are for Windows XP client computers.

  1. Log on to the client computer as Administrator or as Owner.
  2. Click Start >> Control Panel.
  3. Click Network and Internet Connections.
  4. Click Network Connections.
  5. Right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
  6. Click the General tab, click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) in the This connection uses the following items list, and then click Properties.
  7. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click Obtain an IP address automatically (if it is not already selected), and then click OK. 
  8. Click Start >> Control Panel
  9. Click Network and Internet Connections.
  10. Click Internet Options.
  11. In the Internet Properties dialog box, click the Connections tab.
  12. Click the Setup button. The New Connection Wizard starts.
  13. On the Welcome to the New Connection Wizard page, click Next.
  14. Click Connect to the Internet, and then click Next.
  15. Click Set up my connection manually, and then click Next.
  16. Click Connect using a broadband connection that is always on, and then click Next.
  17. On the Completing the New Connection Wizard page, click Finish.
  18. Exit Control Panel and test the internet. You might need to restart the computer.

TCP/IP Advanced guide

In this article, we will take a look at the TCP/IP protocol stack to help us better understand how TCP/IP functions in the network. We’ll look at the Department of Defense (DoD) protocol layers and the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model to help us better understand how the protocols and utilities function at the various layers. This is what I think to be a very easy ISO/OSI and DoD overview. But I guess that will be up to the readers.

 First of all I’m going to talk about ISO/OSI.

The Open Systems Interconnect Model (OSI)

 The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model was developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and helps to identify how the functions of the protocols relate to each other. By showing how the functions relate, we’ll define how the parts of the protocol stack connect to permit machines to effectively communicate. As we look at the OSI model, remember it is just a model concept- we don’t actually see it when two hosts work together :]. The model, however, is the standard and to communicate we must adhere to it. Basically if two computers that are have similar configuration, they will communicate. If their not, you may end up get nasty error messages, failure to initialize services, or no communication at all.

The OSI Model contains seven layers:

 -Application Layer
 -Presentation Layer
 -Transport Layer
 -Network Layer
 -Datalink Layer
 -Physical Layer

 The chart below compares the layers of the ISO-OSI model to the layers of the DoD model. These models give us a sense of how the communication is expected to take place. Moving from the highest layers down to the wire, we see the application needs to be able to operate without being concerned about identifying all of the lower-level hardware and maintaining drivers for each device.

 http://img.microsoft.com/library/media/1033/technet/images/archive/winntas/maintain/fig2-1.gif

 1. The Application Layer provides support to any end user application programming interface. This layer is responsible for working with the originated data stream and communicates them with lower levels. Examples of Applications Programming Interface (API) would be Mail API (MAPI), MS Fax API (FAPI), Telephone API (TAPI), and internet Server API (ISAPI).

 2. The Presentation Layer provides platform to platform translation of syntax for the purpose of data exchange. Modification of data according to a common set of rules is done at this layer. Compression and encryption, for instance, are also done here.

 3. The Sessions Layer provides for the establishment, maintenance, and recovery form failures that occur between applications. When 2 computers establish a session to share data, control of the flow and direction, and the recovery of missing and corrupt data, is the responsibility of this layer. Depending on the type of application, you might see a simplex, a half-duplex, or a full-duplex of data flow. Simplex is a one-way data flow. Half duplex is basically the same as simplex but implies that there is a duplex channel to permit full duplex if configured to do it. Full duplex provides two-way data flow. By providing appropriate checkpoint methods, the wire between both the computers can stay full of data. Only the data that does not make it properly to the other computer needs to be resent.

 4. The Transport Layer guarantees the data is delivered in the right order and in a reliable manner. Here again we consider error checking and correction as a means to put the information in the right order and to make certain that the whole message is received.

 5. The Network Layer provides routing between internetworks and shields the layers above from the details of the lower layers (the physical topology for example). It is at this level that we first find addressing (IP Address)

 6. The Datalink Layer provides reliable transfer of data across the physical link (i.e. the LAN cable). The datalink layer functions to provide formatting, error detection, link management, and data flow control. Again we find addressing, this time at the hardware layer (Example: Hardware address of the network interface card.)

 7. The Physical Layer accepts data from the datalink layer and puts in the right format for the physical medium. this layer specifies the requirements for the wire such as voltage levels, connector types, and handshake.

 Department of Defense (DoD) Overview

 More than one theory can be used to identify how components in the TCP/IP protocol stack connect  dissimilar systems. This is how each Microsoft TCP/IP component or utility fits this model.
 The DoD four-layer mode contains:
 Network Interface Layer
 Internet Layer
 Transport (transmission) Layer
 Application Layer (known earlier as process layer)

 The Network Interface Layer is the lowest layer in the model. It is responsible for putting frames on and off the wire. In order to get the frames to higher levels, which is where the routing and switching take place, there must be information that permits computers to find each other on the subnetwork. This is the network address of the network card. The Network Interface Card (NIC) contains a hardware address that is mapped to and used by the higher level protocols to pass the information up and down the stack and back and forth across the wire.

 TCP/IP can be used in a wide variety of LAN, WAN, and dial-up environments. Supported LAN typed include: Ethernet, Token Ring, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), and ARCnet. Supported WAN types include serial lines and packet-switched networks such as X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) types of topologies supported using TCP/IP are the same as the previously mentioned WAN types.

 Each of the LAN, MAN, WAN, and Dial-up types have different requirements for cables, signaling, data encoding, and so on. The Network Interface layer specifies is the equivilent to the Datalink and Physical layers of the OSI Model as shown up on the chart.

 The Internet Layer has protocols that provide three specific serives:
 1. A connectionless delivery service
 2. A mechanism to break the data up into individual packets of frames on the transmitting side and to put back together on the recievers side. This is process I believe is also known as Fragmentation and Reassembly.
 3. The routing functions necessary to interoperate with other networks.

 Five protocols are implemented at this layer:
 -The Internet Protocol (better known as IP) which addresses and routes packets
 -The Address Resolution Protector (ARP) which determines the hardware address at the recieving host.
 -Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) which sends error messages to the IP when problems crop up.
 -Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) which informs the routers of the availability of multicast groups.

 These protocols do their jobs by encapsulating internet datagrams and running all the necessary routing algorithms. (A datagram is a connectionless or one way communication–It is sent with no configuration. Just like when you send a letter to someone) The user data orriginates in one of the higher level protocols and is passed down to the internet layer. The router, then, examines the IP of the datagram to determine whether the destination is local or not (remote). If both machines are on the same network (this is called a local network), the datagram is forwarded directly to the destination of the host. If the destination is on another network (this is called a remote network), the datagram is forwarded to the default gateway (locally attached gateway–router–to remote networks).

 When a network joins the Internet, the administrator must apply for and recieve a valid IP network and host the number from Internet and Information Center (InterNIC). The hosts carry out the functions mentioned here through the use of these numbers, which, when combined, is known as an IP address.

 The Transport Layer has protocols that provide communications sessions between connected computers. The desired method of data delivery determines the transport protocol. The two transport protocols provided within TCP/IP are the transmission control protocols, and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP provides the virtual circuit service to make the end-to-end connection for the applications. Data Transfer is made reliable throught the use of connections and acknowledgements. The UDP provides delivery but does not use connections or acknowledgements, so it is less reliable but faster. These connectionless protocols I think are define unreliable because nothing is telling you the data was received at the right place. If that’s confusing, try to think of it as a letter. You send the message but their is no way of knowing it reached it’s intended recipient. A connection-oriented protocol however is kind of like making a phone call. You can tell the person on the other side received the message, and possibly understood it.

 The terms “host-to-host” or transmission layer are used interchangeably with the transport layer. The Transport Layer is responsible for error detection and correction in the DoD model and is analogous to the Transport Layer in the OSI model.

 In the Application Layer Microsoft implements two program interfaces at the application layer to allow the applications to utilize the services of the TCP/IP Protocol Stack. These are Windows Sockets and NetBIOS.

 The windows sockets interface provide a standard API under Microsoft Windows to many transport protocols such as IPX and TCP/IP. This open standard library of function calls, data structures, and programming procedures permits Windows applications to take advantage of the TCP/IP. This will pretty much allow you to exchange data with foreign or non-NetBIOS systems.

 NetBIOS provides a standard interface to protocols that support NetBIOS naming and message services, like TCP/IP and NetBEUI. NetBIOS is used in Microsoft products to permit application communication, with lower layer protocols as well. Three TCP ports provide NetBIOS support. These are port 137 which is NetBIOS Name Service, port 138 which is Datagram Service, and port 139 for session service.

 Here are some TCP/IP utilities and services at the application layer:
 FTP, SMTP, SNMP, and Telnet

 Oh by the way, I may not have been very clear on encapsulation. it’s basically the process of adding a header to the data accepted from a higher protocol. When the application originates data, or sends a request to get data , the data or request moves down the total size of the information until it reaches the wire. The individual ones and zeros are sent via the wire to the remote computer where each of the headers is opened or peeled off, I try to think of it as peeling an onion.. idk =D. Anyways… The header information is stripped off at each layer and sent upward to reach, finally, the intended application.

Try Google Namebench For A Faster Internet Experience

If you are tired of your current internet connection speed, if you have wasted a plenty of time in search of a working trick to increase the speed of your internet connection and if you are a power-user and wanting a faster internet experience with 5 minutes to spare,“Google Namebench” is there to help you. (As Google always does!!!)Try out Namebench. It hunts down the fastestDNS Servers available for your computer to use.
How Does Namebench Work?

Namebench runs a fair and thorough benchmark using your web browser history, TCPdump output, or standardized datasets, in order to provide an individual recommendation.
Namebench is completely free and does not modify your system in any way. This project began as 20% project at Google.
Namebench runs on MAC OS X, Windows, and UNIX, and is available with a graphical user interface as well as command line interface.
Namebench was written using open-source tools and libraries Python, Tkinter, PyObjC, dnspython, jinja2 and graphy.
Download Links:
http://code.google.com/p/namebench/downloads/detail?name=namebench-1.3.1-Windows.exe
http://namebench.googlecode.com/files/namebench-1.3.1-Mac_OS_X.dmg
http://namebench.googlecode.com/files/namebench-1.3.1-source.tgz

Stop Jerky Graphics

If you are connected to a LAN and have problems with jerky graphics, this might be the solution:

• Right-click “My Computer”.
• Select “Manage”.
• Click on “Device Manager”.
• Double-click on your NIC under “Network Adapters”.
• In the new window, select the “Advanced” tab.
• Select “Connection Type” and manually set the value of your NIC. (Not “Auto
Sense” which is default.).
• You should reboot.

What is NET SEND Command

NET SEND

Net Send command is used to send messages to other users, computers, or messaging names on the network. The Messenger service must be running to receive messages; it is automatically enabled when you install windows. You can send a message only to a name that is active on the network.

Messenger Services can be used to send advertisements and spam to vulnerable machines on a network. A box will pop up on your screen with the text “Messenger Services” at the top, but the text will be an ad for a product or service interrupting whatever you’re doing on the computer at the time.

To make sure this doesn’t happen to you, just take the following steps:

Windows 2000

1. Click Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools -> Services
2. Scroll down and highlight “Messenger”
3. Right-click the highlighted line and choose Properties.
4. Click the STOP button.
5. Select Disable or Manual in the Startup Type scroll bar
6. Click OK

Windows XP

1. Click Start -> Control Panel
2. Click Performance and Maintenance
3. Click Administrative Tools
4. Double click Services
5. Scroll down and highlight “Messenger”
6. Right-click the highlighted line and choose Properties.
7. Click the STOP button.
8. Select Disable or Manual in the Startup Type scroll bar
9. Click OK

Net Send Command

Net Send {name | * | /DOMAIN | /USERS} Message
Name Is the username, computer name, or messaging name to send the message to. If the name is a computer name that contains blank characters, enclose the alias in quotation marks (” “).

* Sends the message to all the names in your group.

/DOMAIN Sends the message to all the names in the workstation domain. If name is specified, the message is sent to all the names in the specified domain or workgroup.

/USERS Sends the message to all users connected to the server.

Message Is text to be sent as a message.

Installing a Wireless Router

First, turn off the PC and modem, then remove the Ethernet cable from the PC and plug it into the router’s WAN port. Install a second Ethernet cable between the PC’s Ethernet port and one of the router’s Ethernet ports. Power the modem, router and then PC, waiting for the system to boot and initialize before attempting an Internet connection.
Most routers are programmed with the manufacturer’s default settings, including the network’s name or service set identifier (SSID), channel and sign-on password. These default settings generally may be changed using included software or an online setup utility provided by the router’s manufacturer.
Configure the router by entering the router configuration IP address at the URL provided, followed by the configuration utility ID and the default password. To find your router’s default IP address and the default login info, refer to the owner’s manual. If you own a Linksys router, a popular brand, the IP address is usually 192.168.1.1. Two other popular brands, D-Link and Netgear, generally use 192.168.0.1.

Installing and configuring a Wireless Router

A wireless router affords laptop or portable computer users greater mobility in their homes and businesses. In most home networks, wireless routers are connected to a cable or DSL modem, and the router sends the signals and information that make up an Internet protocol (IP) thread to the user’s computer via radio signals rather than wires.
To communicate with the wireless router, individual computers house transceivers such as an internal expansion card, a peripheral docked by USB or, in the case of laptops, a PC card or hard-wired internal device. For those accessing the Internet through a high-speed connection, a wireless router can also serve as a hardware firewall (as opposed to a software program), enabling protection from undesirable outside computers without exhausting as many system resources as traditional firewall programs.

Connecting Two Wireless Routers

Bridging two wireless routers involves configuring both networks manually.
Visit each network location – which should be recognized by your computer automatically – and configure the appropriate Service Set Identifier (SSID) , Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) or WiFi Protected Access (WPA) key and authentication information. Make sure you know the SSID and WEP or WPA key ahead of time.

Connecting a Printer to a Wireless Router

First, check the documentation that came with your printer to determine how it’s designed to connect to computers. Connections made through Ethernet, USB and (obsolescent) parallel ports are common, but newer printers are sometimes wireless-enabled and allow you to simply add them to your wireless network.
Refer to the owner’s manual for your particular wireless router. Inside, find the default IP address and the default login info. If you own a Linksys router, the IP address is usually 192.168.1.1. Other popular brands D-Link and Netgear generally use 192.168.0.1.

How to access the sharing data offline

Access the shared data offline allows you to keep using your shared files, folders and software programs when disconnected from the data server. When you reconnect to your data server, all files will be synchronized to the files on the network.

There are two types of configurations required to set the access shared folders offline available, one for data server and other for client computer.

Configuration on Data Server.

First locate the folders that you would like to share or make new folders then share these folders so they can be accessible to any one on the network.

Now right click on that folder and click on the option “Sharing and security”.

A small dialog box will appear with the title “data properties”. Under the “Sharing” tab, select the check box “Share this folder on the network” under the “Network sharing and security”.

Now set the share level permissions that you want to give the users on every folder. Enable cache of share folders by click on cache button (by default it will be enabled).

Configuration on Client Computer

On the client computer, first open My Computer then click on Tools.

In Tools menu bar, click on Folder Options, a window will appear with the title Folder Options.

Under the Offline File tab, check the option Enable Offline File. Here you can choose the synchronization process “Synchronize all offline files when logging on”, “Synchronize all offline files before logging off” and others.

Click on Apply button to save the settings and then Ok button to close this window.

Now sitting on the client computer, try to access the shared folder from the data server.

First Right click on the shared folder and Click on Make available offline.

To synchronizing the offline work from client computer to data server, again open My Computer then click on Tools. Click on Synchronize then click on synchronizing button.

After that down to data server and then try to access share folders by give the UNC (Universal Naming Convention) path of data server. But it will be accessible weather the server is down or up.